In real-time monitoring of hospital patients, high-quality inference of patients’ health status using all information available from clinical covariates and lab tests are essential to enable successful medical interventions and improve patient outcomes. In this work, we develop and explore a Bayesian nonparametric model based on Gaussian process (GP) regression for hospital patient monitoring. Our method, MedGP, incorporates 24 clinical and lab covariates and supports a rich reference data set from which the relationships between these observed covariates may be inferred and exploited for high-quality inference of patient state over time. To do this, we develop a highly structured sparse GP kernel to enable tractable computation over tens of thousands of time points while estimating correlations among clinical covariates, patients, and periodicity in high-dimensional time series measurements of physiological signals. We apply MedGP to data from hundreds of thousands of patients treated at the Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania. MedGP has a number of benefits over current methods, including (i) not requiring an alignment of the time series data, (ii) quantifying confidence intervals in the predictions, (iii) exploiting a vast and rich database of patients, and (iv) providing interpretable relationships among clinical covariates. We evaluate and compare results from MedGP on the task of online state prediction for three different patient subgroups.