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Universal Scalable Robust Solvers from Computational Information Games and fast eigenspace adapted Multiresolution Analysis

Abstract · Mar 31, 2017 05:26 ·

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Arxiv Abstract

  • Houman Owhadi
  • Clint Scovel

We show how the discovery of robust scalable numerical solvers for arbitrary bounded linear operators can be automated as a Game Theory problem by reformulating the process of computing with partial information and limited resources as that of playing underlying hierarchies of adversarial information games. When the solution space is a Banach space $B$ endowed with a quadratic norm $|\cdot|$, the optimal measure (mixed strategy) for such games (e.g. the adversarial recovery of $u\in B$, given partial measurements $[\phi_i, u]$ with $\phi_i\in B^*$, using relative error in $|\cdot|$-norm as a loss) is a centered Gaussian field $\xi$ solely determined by the norm $|\cdot|$, whose conditioning (on measurements) produces optimal bets. When measurements are hierarchical, the process of conditioning this Gaussian field produces a hierarchy of elementary bets (gamblets). These gamblets generalize the notion of Wavelets and Wannier functions in the sense that they are adapted to the norm $|\cdot|$ and induce a multi-resolution decomposition of $B$ that is adapted to the eigensubspaces of the operator defining the norm $|\cdot|$. When the operator is localized, we show that the resulting gamblets are localized both in space and frequency and introduce the Fast Gamblet Transform (FGT) with rigorous accuracy and (near-linear) complexity estimates. As the FFT can be used to solve and diagonalize arbitrary PDEs with constant coefficients, the FGT can be used to decompose a wide range of continuous linear operators (including arbitrary continuous linear bijections from $H^s_0$ to $H^{-s}$ or to $L^2$) into a sequence of independent linear systems with uniformly bounded condition numbers and leads to $\mathcal{O}(N \operatorname{polylog} N)$ solvers and eigenspace adapted Multiresolution Analysis (resulting in near linear complexity approximation of all eigensubspaces).

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