We present a principled approach to uncover the structure of visual data by solving a novel deep learning task coined visual permutation learning. The goal of this task is to find the permutation that recovers the structure of data from shuffled versions of it. In the case of natural images, this task boils down to recovering the original image from patches shuffled by an unknown permutation matrix. Unfortunately, permutation matrices are discrete, thereby posing difficulties for gradient-based methods. To this end, we resort to a continuous approximation of these matrices using doubly-stochastic matrices which we generate from standard CNN predictions using Sinkhorn iterations. Unrolling these iterations in a Sinkhorn network layer, we propose DeepPermNet, an end-to-end CNN model for this task. The utility of DeepPermNet is demonstrated on two challenging computer vision problems, namely, (i) relative attributes learning and (ii) self-supervised representation learning. Our results show state-of-the-art performance on the Public Figures and OSR benchmarks for (i) and on the classification and segmentation tasks on the PASCAL VOC dataset for (ii).