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Deep Learning Based Regression and Multi-class Models for Acute Oral Toxicity Prediction

Abstract · Apr 16, 2017 04:17 ·

stat-ml cs-lg q-bio-qm

Arxiv Abstract

  • Youjun Xu
  • Jianfeng Pei
  • Luhua Lai

Median lethal death, LD50, is a general indicator of compound acute oral toxicity (AOT). Various in silico methods were developed for AOT prediction to reduce costs and time. In this study, a deep learning architecture composed of multi-layer convolution neural network was used to develop three types of high-level predictive models: regression model (deepAOT-R), multi-classification (deepAOT-C) model and multitask model (deepAOT-CR) for AOT evaluation. These models highly outperformed previously reported models. For the two external datasets containing 1673 (test set I) and 375 (test set II) compounds, the R2 and mean absolute error (MAE) of deepAOTR on the test set I were 0.864 and 0.195, and the prediction accuracy of deepAOT-C was 95.5% and 96.3% on the test set I and II, respectively. The two external prediction accuracy of deepAOT-CR is 95.0% and 94.1%, while the R2 and MAE are 0.861 and 0.204 for test set I, respectively. We then performed forward and backward exploration of deepAOT models for deep fingerprints, which could support shallow machine learning methods more efficiently than traditional fingerprints or descriptors. We further performed automatic feature learning, a key essence of deep learning, to map the corresponding activation values into fragment space and derive AOT-related chemical substructures by reverse mining of the features. Our deep learning framework for AOT is generally applicable in predicting and exploring other toxicity or property endpoints of chemical compounds. The two deepAOT models are freely available at

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